Avicenna, 980-1037, 16 Averroës, 1126-1198, 12 Ibrāhīm, Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl 8 Ṭabarī, 838?-923, 8 Suyūṭī, 1445-1505, 7 Aristotle, 6 Butterworth, Charles E. 6 Hāridī, Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Majīd 6 Thaʻālibī, ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Muḥammad, 961 or 962-1037 or 1038, 6 Fārābī, 5 Kawtharī, Muḥammad Zāhid ibn al-Ḥasan 5 Maimonides, Moses, 1135-1204, 5 Meyerhof, Max, 1874-1945 5 Mubarrad, Muḥammad ibn Yazīd, -898, 5 Māwardī, ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad,‏ 974?-1058, 5 Aristotle 4 Bernand, Marie 4 Bos, Gerrit, 1948- 4 Dunyā, Sulaymān 4 Ghazzālī, 1058-1111 4 Hārūn, ʻAbd al-Salām Muḥammad 4 Ibn Qutaybah, ʻAbd Allāh ibn Muslim, 828-889?, 4 Ibn al-Bayṭār, ʻAbd Allāh ibn Aḥmad, -1248, 4 Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd al-Imām 4 Najjār, Muḥammad ʻAlī 4 Nābulusī, ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl, 1641-1731, 4 Sauneron, Serge 4 Shayyāl, Jamāl al-Dīn 4 Suyūṭī, 1445-1505 4 Theophrastus 4 ʿAbd al-Tawwāb, Ramaḍān 4 Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʻIbādī, 809?-873, 4 Avicenna, 980-1037 3 Bajāwī, ʻAlī Muḥammad 3 Clement, of Alexandria, Saint, approximately 150-approximately 215 3 Davies, Humphrey T. 3 Dīnawarī, Abū Ḥanīfah Aḥmad ibn Dāwūd, -approximately 895, 3 Ebied, R. Y. 3 Fishbein, Michael 3 Gordon, Matthew S. 3 Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf, 1309-1360, 3 Ibn Khaldūn, 1332-1406, 3 Ibn Mālik, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allāh, -1274 3 Ibn al-Jawzī, Abū al-Faraj ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʻAlī, approximately 1116-1201, 3 Ibshīhī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 1388-approximately 1446, 3 Jāḥiẓ, -868 or 869 3 Mackintosh-Smith, Tim, 1961- 3 Madelung, Wilferd 3 Maqrīzī, Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī, 1364-1442, 3 Marcovich, Miroslav, 1919-2001 3 Ptolemy, active 2nd century 3 Qurashī, Abū Zayd Muḥammad ibn Abī al-Khaṭṭāb, 3 Qālī, Abū ʻAlī Ismāʻīl ibn al-Qāsim, 901?-967? 3 Qāsim, Maḥmūd, 1913-1973 3 Robinson, Chase F. 3 Rowson, Everett K. 3 Shinqīṭī, Aḥmad ibn al-Amīn, -1912 or 1913 3 Shirbīnī, Yūsuf ibn Muḥammad, active 1665-1687, 3 Shākir, Aḥmad Muḥammad 3 Shākir, Maḥmūd Muḥammad 3 Volkoff, Oleg V. 3 ʻArīb ibn Saʻd, -979 or 980 3 ʿAskarī, Abū Hilāl al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAbd Allāh, 3 Ḥalabī, Muḥammad Badr al-Dīn al-Naʿsānī 3 Ḥusayn, Muḥammad Kāmil 3 Abū Tammām Ḥabīb ibn Aws al-Ṭāʼī,‪ active 808-842, 2 Ahwānī, Aḥmad Fuʼād, -1970 2 Alpin, Prosper, 1553-1617, 2 Aʻlam al-Shantamarī, Yūsuf ibn Sulaymān, 1019 or 1020-1083 or 1084 2 Badawī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 2 Bar Hebraeus, 1226-1286 2 Basil, Saint, Bishop of Caesarea, approximately 329-379 2 Burri, Carla 2 Butterworth, Charles E., 2 Böwering, Gerhard, 1939- 2 Cheïkho, Louis, 1859-1927 2 Corbin, Henry 2 Craik, Elizabeth M. 2 Daylamī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad, active 1000, 2 Dhahabī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 1274-1348, 2 Farrāj, ʿAbd al-Sattār Aḥmad 2 Fenoyl, R. de 2 Fiqī, Muḥammad Ḥāmid 2 Goeje, M. J. de 1836-1909 2 Hamadhānī, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Malik, 1070 or 1071-1127 2 Havrda, Matyáš, 1972- 2 Hippocrates 2 Homerin, Th. Emil, 1955- 2 Humbach, Helmut, 1921- 2 Hạrūn, ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad 2 Ibn Abī Ḥajalah, Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyá, 1325-1374 or 1375 2 Ibn Durayd, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan, 837 or 838-933, 2 Ibn Fāris al-Qazwīnī, Aḥmad, active 10th century, 2 Ibn Iyās, 1448-approximately 1524, 2 Ibn Jinnī, Abū al-Fatḥ ʻUthmān, -1002, 2 Ibn Khaldūn, 1332-1406 2 Ibn Khaldūn,‏ 1332-1406, 2 Ibn Khallikān, 1211-1282, 2 Ibn Miskawayh, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad, -1030, 2 Ibn Qutaybah, ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muslim, 828-889, 2