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Ancient Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern palaces Volume II : Proceedings of a workshop held at the 10th ICAANE in Vienna, 25 -26 April 2016
The study of the semiotics of palaces in the Ancient Near East and Ancient Egypt provides the historian with diverse information as size and type of architecture demonstrate the kind of representation chosen by rulers towards their world. Some features were adopted from temples in order to stage the appearance of the ruler like a divine epiphany. Some further integrate a temple within the palace, showcasing the desire of the ruler to live with a specific deity under one roof for divine support and protection. The importance of this ruler can also be reflected by the size of the throne room and the number of columns, showing as well a hierarchy in the use of space within the whole building complex and its different units. For instance, the presence of a rather intimate throne room or a second small throne room points to space for confidential exchange between the ruler and his visitors. The capacity of storerooms additionally gives us insight into the economic power standing behind the palace. The comparison of different elements between palatial and domestic architecture also proves helpful in identifying the origins of particular components.0Exploration of such semiotics was initiated with the publication of the first palace volume in 2018 (Verlag der ÖAW, Vienna) following a conference held in London 2013. The present volume stands in direct continuation and is the result of a second palace conference that took place at the 10th ICAANE 2016 in Vienna. Besides introducing other palaces in Egypt and Nubia, this volume is dedicated primarily to Near Eastern palaces which are presented and studied by prominent experts in this field
On the origins of the cartouche and encircling symbolism in Old Kingdom pyramids
This study suggests the development of the cartouche was closely related to the monumental encircling symbolism incorporated into the architectural designs of the Old Kingdom pyramids. By employing a new architectural style and a new iconographic symbol, the pharaoh sought to elevate his status above that of the members of his powerful court.
The archaeological survey of Sudanese Nubia, 1963-69 : the Pharaonic sites
This volume, focusing on pharaonic sites, brings to publication the records of the Archaeological Survey of Sudanese Nubia (ASSN). These records represent a major body of data relating to a region largely now lost to flooding and of considerable importance for understanding the archaeology and history of Nubia.
Mapping the past : from sampling sites and landscapes to exploring the 'archaeological continuum' : proceedings of the XVIII UISPP World Congress (4-8 June 2108, Paris, France). $n Volume 8/session VIII-1
Session VIII-1 of UISPP 2018 in Paris ?Mapping the Past? brought together several contributions reflecting on the need to develop sustainable and reliable approaches to mapping our landscape heritage. The session was guided by the crucial concept termed the ?archaeological continuum?. This concept can be defined as a proactive approach to landscape survey based on the summative evidence detected (or detectable) within the area under examination, reducing spatial and chronological gaps as far as possible through the intensive and extensive application of a wide variety of exploratory methods and analytical techniques. Research work across Europe as well as contributions presented in this session have demonstrated that it is now possible to explore the whole landscape of carefully chosen areas and study them as an archaeological continuum. Archaeological interpretations derived from this kind of approach can be expected to reveal different layers of information belonging to a variety of chronological horizons, each displaying mutual physical (stratigraphic) and conceptual relationships within that horizon. The raising of new archaeological questions and also the development of alternative conservation strategies directly stimulated by the radical ideas inherent in the concept of the? archaeological continuum? are among the major outcomes of the session
Why did ancient states collapse? : the dysfunctional state
Ancient states were rooted in agriculture, sedentism, and population growth. They were fragile and prone to collapse, but there is no consensus on the causes or meaning of collapse, and there is an ongoing debate about the importance, nature and even existence of state-wide collapse Explanations of collapse in terms of competing mono-causal factors are found inferior to those incorporating dynamic, interactive systems. It is proposed that collapse should be explained as failure to fulfill the ancient state’s core functions: assurance of food supplies, defense against external attack, maintenance of internal peace, imposition of its will throughout its territory, enforcement of state-wide laws, and promotion of an ideology to legitimize the political and social status quo. To fulfil these functions certain necessary conditions must be met. The legitimacy of the political and social status quo, including the distribution of political power and wealth, needs to be accepted; the state should be able to extract sufficient resources to fulfill its functions such as defense; it must be able to enforce its decisions; the ruling elite should share a common purpose and actions; the society needs to reflect a shared spirit (asibaya) and purpose across elites and commoners who believe it is worthy of defense. Weaknesses and failure to meet any condition can interact to exacerbate the situation: maladministration, corruption and elite preoccupation with self aggrandisement can induce fiscal weakness, reduced military budgets and further invasion; it can induce neglect of key infrastructures (especially water management). Inequality, a commonly neglected factor despite ancient texts, can erode asibaya and legitimacy and alienate commoners from defence of the state. These themes are explored in relation to the Egyptian Old Kingdom, Mycenae, the Western Roman Empire (WRE), and the Maya. They all exhibit, to varying degrees, weaknesses in meeting the above conditions necessary for stability. (Some of the explanatory political and social factors involved have modern analogies but that issue is not examined)